Eastern (Red) Spruce (Picea rubens)
Natural RangeCanada: Maritimes to southeastern Ontario; U.S.: Mid Atlantic, southern New England, and the central Appalachian Mountain region as far south as North Carolina.
StatureCan grow as tall as 110 feet and to diameters of 4.5 feet, though it grows no taller than 80 feet in the northern parts of its range.
AppearancePale yellow to white, little distinction between heartwood and sapwood. Straight, even graining and a relatively fine texture.
Weight28 lbs/ft3 @ 12% moisture content
Hardness490 lbf (kiln-dried)
WorkabilityEasily machined and glues well. Not very receptive to paint and does not hold nails well.
DurabilityDings and mars easily; very susceptible to decay.
Data: Alden, Harry A., Softwoods of North America (Madison, WI: U.S.D.A. Forest Service Forest Products Laboratory), 1997.

Photography © Virginia Polytechnic Institute, U.S. Forest Service

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